Desempenho dos antígenos PGL-1, LID-1 e NDO-LID para diagnóstico sorológico de hanseníase em pacientes e contatos domiciliares

revisão de literatura

  • Giovana M. Bovolini Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima
  • Eliane A. Silva Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima
  • Vânia Nieto Brito de Souza Instituto Lauro de Souza Lima
Palavras-chave: Hanseníase, Diagnóstico, Testes sorológicos

Resumo

A hanseníase afeta os nervos periféricos e a pele levando a ocorrência de incapacidades na ausência de tratamento específico oportuno. Portanto, parâmetros sorológicos são necessários para intervenções terapêuticas precoces. A detecção de anticorpos contra o glicolipídio fenólico I (PGL-I) é amplamente empregada no diagnóstico e classificação clínica, enquanto a proteína Leprosy IDRI Diagnostic (LID)-1 foi desenhada com a intenção de melhorar o diagnóstico de pacientes paucibacilares. Posteriormente, este antígeno foi conjugado com o natural dissacarídeo ligado ao radical octil (ND-O) do PGL-I, originando o NDO-LID, para aumentar sua sensibilidade. Nesta revisão, avaliamos 16 estudos, comparando a performance desses três antígenos (PGL-I, LID-1 e NDO-LID) para diagnóstico da hanseníase e avaliação de contatos domiciliares. Verificamos grande variação quanto às populações envolvidas, tamanho das amostras, classificação clínica dos pacientes e metodologia utilizada, dificultando a comparação. Entre os pacientes multibacilares, a positividade anti-PGL-I variou de 54,0 a 96,0%, enquanto para LID-1 foi de 47,4 a 94,8% e para NDO-LID apresentou níveis de 60,0 a 98,9%. Nos pacientes paucibacilares, a positividade variou de 6,4 a 52,9% quando PGL-I foi utilizado, 4,0 a 60% contra LID-1 e 16,0 a 63,6% frente ao NDO-LID. Para os contatos domiciliares, as respostas anti-PGL-I, LID-1 e NDO-LID foram 13,2%, 21,7% e 22,9%, respectivamente. O antígeno NDO-LID apresentou maior sensibilidade na maioria dos estudos refletindo seu potencial como ferramenta para o diagnóstico da hanseníase, principalmente em pacientes MB, entretanto, o reconhecimento desse antígeno por contatos domiciliares saudáveis reforça o valor da avaliação clínica para o diagnóstico da hanseníase.

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Publicado
2021-05-17
Como Citar
1.
Bovolini GM, Silva EA, Souza VNB de. Desempenho dos antígenos PGL-1, LID-1 e NDO-LID para diagnóstico sorológico de hanseníase em pacientes e contatos domiciliares: revisão de literatura. Hansen. Int. [Internet]. 17º de maio de 2021 [citado 5º de dezembro de 2021];44:1-14. Disponível em: https://periodicos.saude.sp.gov.br/index.php/hansenologia/article/view/36253
Seção
Artigos de revisão